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Report RSE 18002320

Organometallic porous materials for sodium ion batteries: feasibility study at RSE laboratories

Study of the literature of MOF molecules; synthesis, characterization and main applications. Feasibility study for the development at RSE laboratories of new MOF with applications in Sodium ion batteries field.

The truly effective penetration of non-programmable renewable energy into the energy system needs thedevelopment of high-efficiency and low-cost energy storage systems.

Lithium-ion batteries (LIB) have been widely studied and have great potential; however, the limitedavailability on the Earth''s crust of some elements involved in the production of these cells (for instanceLithium and Cobalt) strictly hinders the full implementation of this system at the global level. Theecological impact and safety matters are further obstacles to the diffusion of these batteries, in somecases subjected to potential overheating and explosion phenomena. The development of Sodium ionsbatteries (NIB), whose operating mechanism is similar to the LIB, would overcome both the problems ofLithium abundance and environmental and safety impact, making the sustainable industrialization low-cost storage systems possible.

The study of cathodic and anodic materials for sodium ion batteries isstill under development: with regard to the cathodic compartment, mainly mixed oxide materials basedon sodium have been tested, whereas the best result for the anodic compartment has been obtained bythe combustion of glucose (hard carbon). The specific capacity of these systems is comparable withLIBs but their stability is still very low and needs to be improved. Recently, a new class of materials,called Metal Organic Frameworks (MOF), has been studying in SNIB applications. MOFs arecrystalline polymers in which transition metal aggregates (or metal derivatives) are interconnected eachother thanks to bonding with bridging organic molecules (linkers). By choosing a different type oflinkers, the structure of the MOF, in terms of flexibility, porosity and surface area, can be tailored as afunction of the applications.

The opportunity of synthesizing flexible 3D structures, with a large surfacearea and with pore dimensions able to accomodate Na+ ions, has led to the development of cathodic andanodic materials stable up to 4000 cycles, although the specific capacity obtained is still to be improved.The activity of this task concern the study of MOF literature: the synthesis and characterization of thesemolecules and their main applications are explained, in particular regarding storage. A feasibility studyon the development of MOF-based anode materials has been carried out: the skills, the facilities and theequipment necessary for putting the project into practice have been considered.

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