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Final report RSE 18002257

Project ACCUMULO: Energy storage materials and technologies for the electric system. Synthesis Report of 2017

The report describes activities and results of the research into the development of electro-chemical small and medium size storage systems and large storage systems able to provide flexibility services to power network.

The report describes activities and results of the research covering the development of electro-chemicalsmall and medium size storage systems and large storage systems able to provide flexibility services topower network.

The activities on electro-chemical storage systems aims to improve materials of electrodes andelectrolyte and to define new technology designs.

One activity concerns the realization of a new mono-cell configuration for a sodium/nichel chloride hightemperature (about 300°C) battery with planar geometry and the study and development of a new solidelectrolyte with ionic conduction properties (β” alumina). In particular, the planar mono-cell has beenoperated with charge and discharge cycles to test seal solutions, after implementing a procedure for thefirst charge of electrode materials at solid state in a single compartment. It was also improved thesintering of the β” alumina with a new method, the Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS).

A second activity concerns the development of a Sodium ion battery (NIB) with anode based onmaterials, called MXeni, with a 2D crystalline structure similar to Graphene, made by the chemicalexfoliation of ternary carbides and nitrides of metals (eg, Al, Ti, etc) belonging to the family of MAXphases.In particular, the activities have been focused on improving sintering processes with SPS toproduce MAX-phases and grinding and exfoliation to obtain MXene, tested as anode in coin cells withmetal sodium as cathode, to measure their capability of intercalation of Na+, on an extended range ofcharge-recharge rates. Besides it was also developed cathodic material, able to be coupled with MXeneto close a prototype of NIB monocell.

The third activity concerns a study of literature about the MOF molecules, a class of porous polymericcrystalline materials, in order to understand their wide application in science materials and in EnergyStorage System in particular, in Sodium ion batteries (NIB). MOFs have been studied chemically,structurally and their potentials as electrodes in NIB have been investigated.

The last activity on electro-chemical storage systems concerns testing procedures and tests on modulesand cells of commercial batteries, in order to estimate lifetime and ageing trend of batteries. A testprocedure was developed, intended to be adaptable to different systems in sizes and characteristics. Apost mortem analysis has also been performed to define correlation among the state of the electrodematerials and the state of health.

The activity on large storage systems is also aiming at their technological development. In particular ithas been investigated, by means of numerical simulations, the process of extraction and storage ofnatural gas in deep geological reservoirs, in order to measure the capability of operating with overpressure (compared with the reservoir discovery pressure) to increase storage volume. More precisely, asimulation model has been developed, based on the Geo-Modelling Analysis Integrated System(GeoSIAM) and used to simulate 1 and 12 thermal seasons of a real reservoir located in Lombardiaregion. A 3D fluid dynamic model and a geo-mechanical model have been developed to simulatescenarios of a typical production and storage cycle of natural gas at a full scale, to investigate the safetyproblems connected with pressure variation inducted by the operating processes.

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