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Article RSE 15002396

Solid fuel from waste: by RDF to SRF to a fuel product (SRF end-of-waste)


Riciclaggio industriale, vol. 2, pp. 18-27, Marzo-Aprile-2015.

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G. Martignon (RSE SpA) , G. Ciceri (RSE SpA)

BIOENERGY 2015 - Bioenergy


This paper outlines nature and impacts of regulatory changes that hit the sector of Solid Recovered Fuels, scoring first, with the Legislative Decree 152/2006 and subsequent amendments, as waste the transition - not only nominal but substantial - by CDR (to standard UNI 9903) in CSS (secondary solid fuel, responding to EN 15359: 2011); defining, then, with the Ministerial Decree n. 22 of 14 February 2013 and subsequent amendments, the conditions - in terms of production, quality and end-users - that make it possible, at the national level, the end-of-waste, it means the status of the product (CSS) fuel.

This evolution has also invested (Ministerial Decree of 6 July 2012 on RES-EE) the mechanism to support the share of electricity obtained from the biodegradable fraction of CSS, recognized as a renewable source according to the 2008/28/EC Directive.Solid Recovered Fuels (CSS) is produced from non-hazardous, municipal and industrial, wastes in industrial Mechanical (MT), and mainly in mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) plants.

Data from ISPRA source, shows that in the year 2013, from 39 MBT plants widespread in Italy, an overall production of about 1.4 Mtons of CSS was obtained (including the share of dry fractions and biostabilised produced by TMB intended for production / refining CSS).

CSS IS undoubtedly an important link of the european an national strategy of sustainable waste management and are already used (energy substitution) in energy-intensive sectors such as cement kilns (AITEC source: over 180,000 ton of CSS used in 2013) and power plants (ENEL source: about 62,000 tons of CSS treated in 2013 in the only thermoelectric plant which currently uses it in mix with coal).

It also fed the national network of plants of incineration/energy recovery from waste (ISPRA source: in 2013 a total of 1.08 Mtons of CSS to energy recovery – it means electricity mainly and partially heat - in 22 of the overall 48 incineration plants treating municipal solid waste; if confirmed what reported for the year 2012, the share of CSS treated in incinerators for hazardous waste only would be essentially negligible), and an export to other European countries is reported too (ISPRA source: a 2013 export flow of around 101,000 ton of CSS).

Italian article

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