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Report RSE 18001859

Advanced functions for security enhancement by means of load control

Report

2017.

Request Document (7.72 MB, .pdf)

E. Ciapessoni (RSE SpA) , A. Gatti (RSE SpA), M. Crosa di Vergagni (Università di Genova), S. Canevese (RSE SpA), A. Pitto (RSE SpA), F. Conte (Università di Genova), F. Silvestro (Università di Genova), D. Cirio (RSE SpA)

GESTDOMANDA 2017 - Demand Side Management

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The present deliverable is focused on the frequency regulation support supplied by two classes ofdomestic thermostatic load, namely refrigerators and boilers. In particular, the focus is on the Very FastActive Power Control – VFAPC, a Demand Response Service – DRS that is mentioned in the ENTSO-ENetwork Code on Demand Connection (Commission Regulation EU 2016/1388, Articles 27, 30). TheVFAPC refers to a response time which shall not be longer than 2 seconds.

The VFAPC support has been implemented by introducingThe present deliverable is focused on the frequency regulation support supplied by two classes ofdomestic thermostatic load, namely refrigerators and boilers. In particular, the focus is on the Very FastActive Power Control – VFAPC, a Demand Response Service – DRS that is mentioned in the ENTSO-ENetwork Code on Demand Connection (Commission Regulation EU 2016/1388, Articles 27, 30). TheVFAPC refers to a response time which shall not be longer than 2 seconds.The VFAPC support has been implemented by introducing an additional control in input to the loadthermostat controller in order to change the load on/off status in response to an external signal, namelythe frequency gradient (Rate of Change of Frequency - ROCOF) or the frequency deviation (error ordeviation from the nominal value 50 Hz). In case of frequency gradient signal, the additional controlintroduces the Synthetic Inertia emulation by thermostatic loads whereas, in case of frequency deviationsignal, the additional control implements the Very Fast Primary regulation.

The dynamic response has been simulated using a bus-bar model of the Sardinian system at the 2020horizon. Thermostatic loads and test grid have been modeled in the MATLAB®/Simulink™environment.The performance of VFAPC provided by thermostatic loads has been evaluated by analyzing the impacton the frequency transient triggered by very large or small perturbations. The simulation results havedemonstrated the ability of the thermostatic loads to effectively contribute to the containment of thefrequency gradient ("synthetic" inertia support) and/or of the frequency deviation ("very fast " primarysupport), ensuring minimal impact on secondary regulation. an additional control in input to the loadthermostat controller in order to change the load on/off status in response to an external signal, namelythe frequency gradient (Rate of Change of Frequency - ROCOF) or the frequency deviation (error ordeviation from the nominal value 50 Hz). In case of frequency gradient signal, the additional controlintroduces the Synthetic Inertia emulation by thermostatic loads whereas, in case of frequency deviationsignal, the additional control implements the Very Fast Primary regulation.The dynamic response has been simulated using a bus-bar model of the Sardinian system at the 2020horizon. Thermostatic loads and test grid have been modeled in the MATLAB®/Simulink™environment.

The performance of VFAPC provided by thermostatic loads has been evaluated by analyzing the impacton the frequency transient triggered by very large or small perturbations. The simulation results havedemonstrated the ability of the thermostatic loads to effectively contribute to the containment of thefrequency gradient ("synthetic" inertia support) and/or of the frequency deviation ("very fast " primarysupport), ensuring minimal impact on secondary regulation.

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